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Diabetes medicine

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Diabetes medicine requiring insulin treatment

– The term diabetes , used alone, designates diabetes mellitus .

– Diabetes mellitus corresponds to a disorder of the metabolism of carbohydrates ( sugars ) either by lack of insulin (one of the hormones responsible for regulating the blood sugar level of the body and its use by the tissues), or by resistance abnormal of the organism with respect to this hormone. It follows an accumulation of glucose in the tissues then the appearance of complications such as atherosclerosis (progressive obstruction of large and medium-caliber arteries ), damage to micro-vessels (kidneys, retina ) or damage to the nerves ( neuropathies).

– The diagnostic criteria currently used to define diabetes are:

  • -> Fasting blood sugar> 1.26 g / L or 7 mmol / L;
  • -> Glucose during the day> 2g / L with clinical signs of diabetes.

– Diabetes can be subdivided into:

  • -> type I diabetes : linked to an absence or insufficiency of insulin secretion, it is the least frequent. It occurs readily in young subjects. Treatment requires insulin ( insulin-dependent or insulin- requiring diabetes );
  • -> type II diabetes : insulin secretion is maintained, but there is some degree of insulin resistance and blood sugar levels are high. This is the most frequent form, it readily appears after the age of 40, its treatment does not require insulin (non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus);
  • -> secondary diabetes (pancreatic disease, certain drugs , genetic origin , malnutrition, other endocrine diseases, etc.).

– Its first manifestations are very strong thirst , a very frequent urge to urinate, weight loss despite excessive diet , the occurrence of ketoacidosis (mainly in type I diabetes. In type II , the signs are more insidious associated to obesity .

– Diabetes can also be discovered on the occasion of the occurrence of complications peppering are changing: arteritis , neuropathy , hypertension , diabetic nephropathy , microangiopathy responsible for retinopathy and kidney failure diabetes .